Python: Line slices
When we work with strings in programming, we regularly have to extract some part of them. For example, we need to figure out if a smaller string is present inside a larger one. In this lesson, we will figure out how to do that.
Substring is some part of the string to be found and extracted.
Suppose we have a date in this format: 12-08-2034. We need to extract from it a substring, which includes only the year.
If you think logically, you need to count the index of the character with which the year begins, and then extract the four characters. The indexes in the string start from zero, so the first character of the year is available by index 6, and the last character by index 9. Check:
value = '12-08-2034' print(value) # => 2 print(value) # => 4
Knowing these indices, we can use slices and get the desired substring:
value = '12-08-2034' year = value[6:10] print(year) # => 2034
String Slices in Python is a mechanism by which you extract a substring by specified parameters. In the example above, we took the substring from index 6 through index 10, not including, that is, 6 through 9 inclusive. The formula looks like this:
str[start index:end index] # A couple of examples value = '01-12-9873' # A line cut is always a line, # even if there was a number inside the string. value[1:2] # '1' value[3:5] # '12'
Cuts are a mechanism with many variations. For example, if you do not specify the second boundary, the extraction will happen before the end of the string. It is the same with the first boundary - the beginning of the string:
value = 'Hexlet' value[3:] # 'let' value[:3] # 'Hex'
You can even specify negative indices. In this case the counting goes from the reverse side:
value = 'Hexlet' # The right boundary is negative. Count -1 from the end of the line value[3:-1] # 'le' # The left boundary is negative. We count -5 from the end of the line value[-5:3] # 'ex'
Slices have two mandatory parameters, but sometimes a third is used.
Slices have a third optional parameter - extraction step. By default it is one, but we can change it:
value = 'Hexlet' value[1:5:2] # el # 1:5 это 'exle' # step 2 is every second, that is, 'e' and 'l'
All of these can be combined with open boundaries, that is, without specifying the beginning or end:
value = 'Hexlet' value[:5:2] # 'Hxe' value[1::2] # 'elt'
The step can be negative, in which case it is taken from the end. From this follows the most popular way to use the step - reverse the string:
value = 'Hexlet' # Skipping both borders value[::-1] # 'telxeH'
If a negative step is used, and the slice elements are extracted in reverse order, then the slice boundaries should also be specified in reverse order. The right slice boundary is specified first, and the left one is specified second:
value = 'Hexlet' # The character with index 1 will not be included in the substring value[4:1:-1] # 'elx'
The cuts can be specified not only through numbers, but also using variables:
value = 'Hexlet' start = 1 end = 5 value[start:end] # 'exle'
As you can see, slices can do a lot. Don't worry if you don't memorize all these combinations right now-it's okay. Over time, you'll learn how to use them without having to peek at the documentation.
value contains the value
Hexlet. Extract from it and display the slice that gets the substring
xle. This task can be done in different ways.
The exercise doesn't pass checking. What to do? 😶
If you've reached a deadlock it's time to ask your question in the «Discussions». How ask a question correctly:
- Be sure to attach the test output, without it it's almost impossible to figure out what went wrong, even if you show your code. It's complicated for developers to execute code in their heads, but having a mistake before their eyes most probably will be helpful.
In my environment the code works, but not here 🤨
Tests are designed so that they test the solution in different ways and against different data. Often the solution works with one kind of input data but doesn't work with others. Check the «Tests» tab to figure this out, you can find hints at the error output.
My code is different from the teacher's one 🤔
It's fine. 🙆 One task in programming can be solved in many different ways. If your code passed all tests, it complies with the task conditions.
In some rare cases, the solution may be adjusted to the tests, but this can be seen immediately.
I've read the lessons but nothing is clear 🙄
It's hard to make educational materials that will suit everyone. We do our best but there is always something to improve. If you see a material that is not clear to you, describe the problem in “Discussions”. It will be great if you'll write unclear points in the question form. Usually, we need a few days for corrections.
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