Encoding

At the deepest level, the computer operates exclusively with the numbers 0 and 1. This is the so-called binary code, and the ones and zeros are called bits, from “binary digit” - “binary digit”.

The usual numbers familiar to us in the decimal number system are encoded using binary numbers:

  • 0 ← 0
  • 1 ← 1
  • 2 ← 10
  • 3 ← 11
  • 4 ← 100
  • 5 ← 101

But what about the text? The computer does not really know anything about letters, punctuation and other text characters. All these characters are also encoded with numbers.

You can take the English alphabet and give each letter a number, starting from one in order:

  • a ← 1
  • b ← 2
  • c ← 3
  • d ← 4
  • z ← 26

Then you can teach a computer to understand this table and translate text into numbers and vice versa - numbers into text:

  • hello8 5 12 12 15
  • 7 15 15 4good

This is the essence of encodings.

In addition to letters of the alphabet, punctuation marks and other useful characters are included in the charset tables. You’ve probably come across encodings like ASCII or UTF-8.

Different encodings contain different numbers of characters. Initially, small tables like ASCII were sufficient for most tasks. But it has only Latin letters, a few simple characters like % and ? And special control characters such as line breaks.

With the spread of computers, different countries needed their own wider tables. Including for Cyrillic letters, oriental hieroglyphs, Arabic script, additional mathematical and typographic symbols, and later even for emoji-emoticons.

Today, in most cases, one of the unicode variants is used, which includes signs of almost all the written languages of the world.

instructions

In Java, you can “request” and display any character from the ASCII encoding. For example:

System.out.print((char) 63);

The character with the number 63 is displayed on the screen - the question mark ?. In this way, you can display any character.

Find the ASCII code table on the Internet. You can use queries like “ascii codes table” or “ascii codes”. Usually in such tables, codes are indicated in several numeral systems: decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal. We are interested in decimal code (dec or decimal).

Using the example above and the table found, display ~^%.

(Of course, you can “trick” the tests and just do System.out.print("~^%"), but it will be completely uninteresting :)


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